Formal Safety Studies

Formal Safety Studies including QRA Modelling Solutions is generally a five step process. 

  • Identification of hazards
  • Assessment of risks
  • Identifying the control options
  • Cost-benefit assessment for the control options
  • Recommendations for decision making

Formal Safety Studies include QRA Modelling solutions, fire and explosion risk assessment and building risk assessment.

Quantitative Risk Assessment

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a formal and systematic process of identifying and evaluating the potential hazards related with the working of an engineering process. It demonstrates the risks lying in the ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable). 


Objectives of the QRA Study:

  • To recognize hazards associated with a facility.
  • To decide the potential frequencies and consequences of the identified hazards.
  • To decide the system availability of the protection systems.
  • To quantify the risks associated with a facility (Risk Contours, Individual Risk Per Annum (IRPA), Potential Loss of Life (PLL), and F-N Plots).

QRA is implemented on the basis of noticeable technical hazards that leads to accidents. The approach uses measurable and objective data to work out the asset values, probability of losses and the risks associated with them. Formal Safety Studies including QRA Modelling is also responsible for making cost-effective decisions to manage the risks of the complete asset lifecycle. 


Elements of QRA Study:

  • PHA Studies
  • Quantified Risk Assessment
  • Safety Case Development and Review
  • Modelling of Dispersion, Fire, Explosion and Toxic Releases

Safety Audits, Drop Object and Work at Height Surveys for both Onshore and Offshore Rigs

Fire and Explosion Risk Assessment

Fire and Explosion Risk Assessment (FERA) is a structured and systematic process to identify and assess risks from fire and explosion hazards. The results of this assessment are used to ensure safe facility layouts, specify passive and active fire protection requirements, and to provide input for Escape and Evacuation Risk Assessment (EERA, Emergency Systems Survival Assessment (ESSA), Building Risk Assessment (BRA) and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) studies.

Fire and Explosion Risk Assessment (FERA) comprises quantification of the probability of fire and explosion accidental events, and their consequences. FERA shall quantify risks to the asset associated with events caused by Loss of Containments (LOCs).

Main objectives of FERA: 

  • To analyze and quantitatively assess all credible fire and explosion events connected to flammable inventories that can have an impact on the facilities.
  • To offer input to decisions connected to the design of systems and equipment, the layout of main areas and equipment, and the requirement to barriers.
  • To offer appropriate recommendations on the design and operation of the facilities that can achieve a reduction in fire risks.

Steps in Fire and Explosion Risk Assessment: 

  • Identifying all potential LOC that could result in potential fire and explosion hazards on the facilities.
  • Determining the physical properties of flammable inventory, such as volume, mass flow rates, pressure, temperature, etc.
  • Identifying the potential release types and the following fire/explosion scenarios like pool fire, jet fire, flash fire, explosion, etc.
  • Developing the fire/explosion characteristics for each of the identified fire/explosion scenarios (e.g. flame sizes, radiation distances, explosion overpressure distances, etc.).
  • Determining the leak frequencies linked to each fire/explosion scenario.
  • Deciding the possible escalation scenarios and consequences of each event, with consideration of the control and mitigation measures proposed.
  • Proposing additional measures for control and mitigation of the fire/explosion hazards for review as part of ALARP demonstration process.

Building Risk Assessment

Building Risk Assessment (BRA) is a tool used to evaluate the risks to people in occupied buildings in the facility. It accurately measures the risk and identifies any improvements that are required to ensure that they are adequately safeguarded for any major accidental events.

At EERM Building Risk Assessment is carried out to assess the explosion, fire, and toxic release hazards using the three-stage process outlined by API RP 752. BRA Stage 1 and 2 involve the following steps:

  • Identifying potential hazards to which the buildings might be exposed, which may be from the operator or neighboring facilities.
  • Conducting consequence modelling as per Stage 2 BRA requirements and based on plant compositions, data and configuration for the facility.
  • Performing a detailed stage 3 BRA for major hazards, in case the mitigation measures identified at Stage 2 for the buildings are cost-prohibitive and impractical.
  • Identifying and recommending suitable prevention and mitigation measures for the building which are subject to unacceptable consequences from potential vapour cloud explosion (VCE), flammable cloud, fire and toxic hazards.
  • Providing design explosion overpressure and impulse values for the buildings